However these impacts can be addressed through the Environmental Management Systems so that extractive sites do not reduce bio-diversity, but are managed to greatly enhance and protect bio-diversity.

Quite often the land use prior to extraction is intensive agriculture, where species diversity is low due to spraying. During extraction and post closure, exposed quarry faces are ideal breeding and feeding sites for Peregrine Falcons, indeed these birds are not uncommon at a number of the Kilsaran quarries.

Similarly exposed faces at sand and gravel pits provide ideal nesting sites for Sand Martins.

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